DOI: 10.3114/fuse.2023.12.09 ISSN:

A phylogeny for North American Mallocybe (Inocybaceae) and taxonomic revision of eastern North American taxa

P.B. Matheny, L.V. Kudzma, M.G. Graddy, S.M. Mardini, C.R. Noffsinger, R.A. Swenie, N.C. Walker, S.R. Campagna, R. Halling, R. Lebeuf, M. Kuo, D.P. Lewis, M.E. Smith, M. Tabassum, S.A. Trudell, J. Vauras
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (miscellaneous)
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Microbiology

A multigene phylogenetic assessment of North American species of Mallocybe is presented based on analyses of rpb1, rpb2, ITS, and 28S rDNA nucleotide data. This framework enables a systematic revision of the genus for 16 eastern North American species and captures taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity in a global context. A grade of two unusual and poorly known North American species stems from the most recent common ancestor of the genus that gives rise to three core subgroups named here as clades Unicolores, Nothosperma, and Mallocybe. The grade of taxa includes the poorly known Lepista praevillosa from Florida and a new species from the southern Appalachians, M. montana, both of which appear to be narrow-range endemics. Clade Nothosperma is characterized by Australian and New Zealand species, whereas clade Unicolores is composed of six species from eastern North America and East Asia. Clade Mallocybe is dominated by numerous north temperate taxa and constitutes the sister group to clade Nothosperma. These major clades are distinguished by a combination of phylogeny, morphology, geographic distribution, and ecology. In addition, four North American species are described as new: M. leucothrix, M. luteobasis, M. montana, and M. tomentella. Several names originating in North America, long ignored or misunderstood in the literature, are revitalized and established by type comparisons and modern reference material collected from or near type localities. In addition, 11 species were subjected to mass spectrometry muscarine assays, none of which contained detectable amounts of muscarine except for two: M. sabulosa and M. praevillosa. This confirms a diffuse phylogenetic distribution of muscarine within the genus. Taxonomic descriptions are presented for 16 species, several synonymies proposed, and four new combinations made. A key to species of eastern North American Mallocybe is presented, along with illustrations of important diagnostic features.

More from our Archive