DOI: 10.1093/humrep/dead158 ISSN:

Reproductive capacity after gender-affirming testosterone therapy

Hadrian M Kinnear, Molly B Moravek
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Rehabilitation
  • Reproductive Medicine


Transgender and nonbinary people with female birth sex may utilize testosterone therapy for masculinization. Individuals interested in reproduction using their own gametes should be offered fertility preservation prior to starting testosterone. However, logistical and practical barriers prevent many from accessing fertility preservation options prior to starting testosterone. Some of these transmasculine and nonbinary individuals may later become interested in carrying a pregnancy or using their oocytes for reproduction after being on testosterone. Many questions remain about the reproductive impact of long-term masculinizing testosterone therapy. Emerging literature has documented pregnancies and successful assisted reproduction for some people after taking testosterone, but it is not known whether individuals can expect these successful outcomes. Testosterone appears to impact the reproductive tract, including the ovaries, uterus, and fallopian tubes, but the reversibility and functional impact of these changes also remain unclear. A greater understanding of the impact of masculinizing testosterone on reproductive capacity remains a priority area for future research.

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