DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciad581 ISSN: 1058-4838

Recording and Reporting of Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) Priority Variables and Its Implication on Expanding Surveillance Sites in Nepal: A CAPTURA Experience

Sanju Maharjan, Patrick Gallagher, Manish Gautam, Hea Sun Joh, Mohammad Julhas Sujan, Ahmed Taha Aboushady, Soo Young Kwon, Sanjay Gautam, Madan Kumar Upadhyaya, Runa Jha, Jyoti Acharya, William R MacWright, Florian Marks, John Stelling, Nimesh Poudyal
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Microbiology (medical)


Data on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) from sites not participating in the National AMR surveillance network, conducted by National Public Health Laboratory (NPHL), remain largely unknown in Nepal. The “Capturing Data on Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns and Trends in Use in Regions of Asia” (CAPTURA) assessed AMR data from previously untapped data sources in Nepal. A retrospective cross-sectional data review was carried out for the AMR data recorded between January 2017 and December 2019 to analyze AMR data from 26 hospital-based laboratories and 2 diagnostic laboratories in Nepal. Of the 56 health facilities initially contacted to participate in this project activity, 50.0% (28/56) signed a data-sharing agreement with CAPTURA. Eleven of the 28 hospitals were AMR surveillance sites, whereas the other 17, although not part of the National AMR surveillance network, recorded AMR-related data. Data for 663 602 isolates obtained from 580 038 patients were analyzed. A complete record of the 11 CAPTURA priority variables was obtained from 45.5% (5/11) of government hospitals, 63.6% (7/11) of private hospitals, and 54.6% (6/11) of public-private hospitals networked with NPHL for AMR surveillance. Similarly, 80% (8/10) of clinics and 54.6% (6/11) of laboratories outside the NPHL network recorded complete data for the 10 Global Antimicrobial Resistance and Use Surveillance System (GLASS) priority variables and 11/14 CAPTURA priority variables. Retrospective review of the data identified areas requiring additional resources and interventions to improve the quality of data on AMR in Nepal. Furthermore, we observed no difference in the priority variables reported by sites within or outside the NPHL network, thus suggesting that policies could be made to expand the surveillance system to include these sites without substantially affecting the government's budget.

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