DOI: 10.3390/vaccines11121794 ISSN: 2076-393X

PLGA-Encapsulated Haemonchus contortus Antigen ES-15 Augments Immune Responses in a Murine Model

Muhammad Waqqas Hasan, Muhammad Ehsan, Qiangqiang Wang, Muhammad Haseeb, Shakeel Ahmed Lakho, Ali Haider, Mingmin Lu, Lixin Xu, Xiaokai Song, Ruofeng Yan, Xiangrui Li
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Drug Discovery
  • Pharmacology
  • Immunology

Haemonchus contortus is a gastrointestinal parasite that adversely impacts small ruminants, resulting in a notable reduction in animal productivity. In the current investigation, we developed a nanovaccine by encapsulating the recombinant protein rHcES-15, sourced from the excretory/secretory products of H. contortus, within biodegradable poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs). The development of this nanovaccine involved the formulation of PLGA NPs using a modified double emulsion solvent evaporation technique. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)verified the successful encapsulation of rHcES-15 within PLGA NPs, exhibiting a size range of 350–400 nm. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) of the antigen in the nanovaccine was determined to be 72%. A total of forty experimental mice were allocated into five groups, with the nanovaccine administered on day 0 and the mice euthanized at the end of the 14-day trial. The stimulation index (SI) from the mice subjected to the nanovaccine indicated heightened lymphocyte proliferation (*** p < 0.001) and a noteworthy increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, and IL-17). Additionally, the percentages of T-cells (CD4+, CD8+) and dendritic cell phenotypes (CD83+, CD86+) were significantly elevated (** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001) in mice inoculated with the nanovaccine compared to control groups and the rHcES-15 group. Correspondingly, higher levels of antigen-specific serum immunoglobulins (IgG1, IgG2a, IgM) were observed in response to the nanovaccine in comparison to both the antigenic (rHcES-15) and control groups (* p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01). In conclusion, the data strongly supports the proposal that the encapsulation of rHcES-15 within PLGA NPs effectively triggers immune cells in vivo, ultimately enhancing the antigen-specific adaptive immune responses against H. contortus. This finding underscores the promising potential of the nanovaccine, justifying further investigations to definitively ascertain its efficacy.

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