DOI: 10.1002/tox.24060 ISSN: 1520-4081

Protective effect of chicory and/or artichoke leaves extracts on carbon tetrachloride and gamma‐irradiation‐induced chronic nephrotoxicity in rats

Mamdouh M. T. Eassawy, Amel F. M. Ismail
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
  • Toxicology
  • General Medicine


The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is in progress that causes kidney failure, leading to global problems. This manuscript investigated the nephroprotective effects of chicory (CLE) and/or artichoke (ALE) leaves extracts on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and gamma‐irradiation (Rad)‐induced chronic nephrotoxicity in rats. Rats were divided into 10 groups (10 animals/group): group 1: control, groups 2–7 rats were treated with CLE, ALE, CLE/ALE, CCl4, Rad, and CCl4/Rad, respectively. Groups 8 to 10, rats were intoxicated with CCl4/Rad, and treated with CLE, ALE, and CLE/ALE extracts, respectively, for 4 weeks. The data demonstrated that CCl4 administration or Rad exposure induced high levels of urea and creatinine, with low levels of total protein and albumin in the serum. However, high levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), some pro‐inflammatory markers such as interleukins (IL‐1β, IL‐2, IL‐6), TNF‐α, NF‐κB, the fibrotic marker; TGF‐β1, calcium, and copper, low contents of reduced glutathione (GSH), iron, and zinc, and suppression of the antioxidant enzymes' activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) were observed. In addition, the Wnt and β‐catenin protein expression ratios were up‐regulated in the kidney tissues of the CCl4, and Rad intoxicated animals. However, the combined treatment CCl4/Rad augmented these measurements. On the other hand, CLE, ALE, and CLE/ALE treatments demonstrated nephroprotection in the kidney tissues of CCl4/Rad intoxicated animals, in the order of CLE/ALE>ALE>CLE by ameliorating the investigated parameters. Kidney tissues' histopathological examinations confirmed these results. In conclusion, CLE and/or ALE demonstrated nephroprotection against CCl4/Rad co‐toxicity mediated by down‐regulation of renal Wnt/β‐catenin protein expressions.

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