DOI: 10.1515/gps-2023-0188 ISSN: 2191-9550

Antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, and cytotoxicity activities of the aqueous extract of Syzygium aromaticum-mediated synthesized novel silver nanoparticles

Moorthy Muruganandham, Fatimah Oleyan Al-Otibi, Raedah Ibrahim Alharbi, Kanagasabapathy Sivasubramanian, Ramalingam Karthik Raja, Palanivel Velmurugan, Nagaraj Basavegowda
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Fuel Technology
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • General Chemical Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry


The synthesis of silver nanoparticles using plant-based materials has seen a surge in recent years. This study used the Syzygium aromaticum (clove) buds extract as a reducing agent for synthesizing silver nanoparticles (Sa-AgNPs). The presence of Sa-AgNPs (440 nm) was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The optimization of nanoparticle production with pH, metal ions, and substrate concentration (clove extract) was studied. The transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that Sa-AgNPs had a size distribution predominantly below the range of 10–100 nm. The investigation of Sa-AgNPs using EDX revealed the presence of an optical absorption silver peak at 3 keV. The involvement of phenolic chemicals and carboxylic acids in stretching O–H, N–O, and C═O bonds, forming Sa-AgNPs has been identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Klebsiella pneumoniae and Trichophyton rubrum exhibited a higher inhibition zone of 26 ± 0.48 mm and 21 ± 0.48 mm in antibacterial and antifungal activity, respectively. In the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl experiment, at a maximum concentration of 500 μg·mL−1, Sa-AgNPs exhibited a scavenging efficiency of 79.98%. Cytotoxicity was observed in the treated cells due to the presence of biologically synthesized Sa-AgNPs. An IC50 value of 48 μg·mL−1 was determined by treating L929 human fibroblast cells.

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