DOI: 10.3390/toxics11120968 ISSN: 2305-6304

Persistent Halogenated Organic Pollutants in Deep-Water-Deposited Particulates from South China Sea

Jia-De Lee, Tsyr-Huei Chiou, Hong-Jie Zhang, How-Ran Chao, Kuang-Yu Chen, Yan-You Gou, Chien-Er Huang, Sheng-Lun Lin, Lin-Chi Wang
  • Chemical Health and Safety
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Toxicology

POP data are limited in the marine environment; thus, this study aimed to investigate background persistent organic pollutant (POP) levels in oceanic deep-water-deposited particulates in the South China Sea (SCS). Six POPs, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs), and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), were investigated in eight pooled samples from the SCS from 20 September 2013 to 23 March 2014 and 15 April 2014 to 24 October 2014 at depths of 2000 m and 3500 m. PBDEs were the most predominant compounds, with the highest mean Σ14PBDE of 125 ± 114 ng/g dry weight (d.w.), followed by Σ17PCDD/F, Σ12PBDD/F, and Σ12DL-PCB (275 ± 1930, 253 ± 216, and 116 ± 166 pg/g d.w., respectively). Most PBDD/F, PBB, and PCDE congeners were below the detection limits. PCDDs had the highest toxic equivalency (TEQ), followed by PBDDs and DL-PCBs. Among the six POPs, PBDEs were the major components of the marine-deposited particles, regarding both concentrations and mass fluxes. Compared to 3500 m, PBDE levels were higher at a depth of 2000 m. PBDE mass fluxes were 20.9 and 14.2 ng/m2/day or 68.2 and 75.9 ng/m2/year at deep-water 2000 and 3500 m, respectively. This study first investigated POP levels in oceanic deep-water-deposited particles from existing global data.

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