DOI: 10.3390/toxics11120966 ISSN: 2305-6304

Occurrence, Bioaccumulation, Metabolism and Ecotoxicity of Fluoroquinolones in the Aquatic Environment: A Review

Mengnan Shen, Yi Hu, Ke Zhao, Chenyang Li, Binshuo Liu, Ming Li, Chen Lyu, Lei Sun, Shuang Zhong
  • Chemical Health and Safety
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Toxicology

In recent years, there has been growing concern about antibiotic contamination in water bodies, particularly the widespread presence of fluoroquinolones (FQs), which pose a serious threat to ecosystems due to their extensive use and the phenomenon of “pseudo-persistence”. This article provides a comprehensive review of the literature on FQs in water bodies, summarizing and analyzing contamination levels of FQs in global surface water over the past three years, as well as the bioaccumulation and metabolism patterns of FQs in aquatic organisms, their ecological toxicity, and the influencing factors. The results show that FQs contamination is widespread in surface water across the surveyed 32 countries, with ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin being the most heavy contaminants. Furthermore, contamination levels are generally higher in developing and developed countries. It has been observed that compound types, species, and environmental factors influence the bioaccumulation, metabolism, and toxicity of FQs in aquatic organisms. FQs tend to accumulate more in organisms with higher lipid content, and toxicity experiments have shown that FQs exhibit the highest toxicity to bacteria and the weakest toxicity to mollusk. This article summarizes and analyzes the current research status and shortcomings of FQs, providing guidance and theoretical support for future research directions.

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