DOI: 10.3390/genes15030358 ISSN: 2073-4425

New Genetic Markers of Skin T-Cell Lymphoma Treatment

Vladimír Vašků, Petra Fialová, Anna Vašků
  • Genetics (clinical)
  • Genetics

Aim: Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) can be described as chronic skin inflammation lesions with the content of malignant T cells and they are considered to be T-cell-mediated skin diseases. CD147 is recognized as a 58-kDa cell surface glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin superfamily; it can induce the synthesis of MMPs (matrix metalloproteinases) on the surface of tumor cells where it was originally identified. It can also function in adjacent tumor fibroblasts using CD147–CD147 interactions. The polymorphism rs8259 T/A is situated in the untranslated region (3′UTR) of the CD147 gene. HLA DRB1*1501 takes part in the process of presentation and recognition of different antigens to T cells. It can be expressed by antigen-presenting cells—macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells. The aim of the study is to test genotype–phenotype associations of both polymorphisms including therapy in a large cohort of CTCL patients. Materials and Methods: A final total of 104 CTCL patients were enrolled in the study. For the first remission at the clinic department, they were treated by means of local skin-directed therapy, phototherapy, and systemic therapy. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood leukocytes. A standard technique using proteinase K was applied. The polymorphisms rs8259 T/A (CD147 gene) and rs3135388 (HLA DRB1*1501) were detected through standard PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. Results: The severity of the disease (patients with parapsoriasis, stages IA and IB, vs patients with stages IIB, IIIA, and IIIB) was associated with the CD147 genotype: the AA variant was 3.38 times more frequent in more severe cases, which reflects the decision on systemic therapy (p = 0.02, specificity 0.965). The AA genotype in the CD147 polymorphism was 12 times more frequent in patients who underwent systemic therapy of CTCL compared to those not treated with this therapy (p = 0.009, specificity 0.976). The same genotype was also associated with radiotherapy—it was observed 14 times more frequently in patients treated with radiotherapy (p = 0.009, specificity 0.959). In patients treated with interferon α therapy, the AA genotype was observed to be 5.85 times more frequent compared to the patients not treated with interferon therapy (p = 0.03, specificity 0.963). The HLA DRB1*1501 polymorphism was associated with local skin-directed therapy of CTCL. The CC genotype of the polymorphism was observed to be 3.57 times more frequent in patients treated with local therapy (p = 0.008, specificity 0.948). When both polymorphisms had been calculated together, even better results were obtained: the AACC double genotype was 11 times more frequent in patients with severe CTCL (p = 0.009, specificity 0.977). The TACT double genotype was associated with local skin-directed therapy (0.09 times lower frequency, p = 0.007, sensitivity 0.982). The AACC genotype was 8.9 times more frequent in patients treated by means of systemic therapy (p = 0.02, specificity 0.976) and as many as 18.8 times more frequent in patients treated with radiotherapy (p = 0.005, specificity 0.969). Thus, the AACC double genotype of CD147 and DRB1*1501 polymorphisms seems to be a clinically highly specific marker of severity, systemic therapy and radiotherapy of patients with T-cell lymphoma. Conclusion: Although genotyping results were not known during the treatment decision and could not modify it, the clinical decision on severity and therapy reflected some aspects of the genetic background of this complicated T-cell-associated disease very well.

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