DOI: 10.1111/clr.14153 ISSN: 0905-7161

Microbiota associated with peri‐implantitis—A systematic review with meta‐analyses

Érika B. S. Carvalho, Mario Romandini, Sofya Sadilina, Adriana C. P. Sant'Ana, Mariano Sanz
  • Oral Surgery



To answer the following PECO question: “In systemically healthy human subjects (P), which are the differences between peri‐implantitis (E) and peri‐implant health/mucositis (C) in terms of bacterial presence/count (O)?”

Materials and Methods

Cross‐sectional studies fulfilling specific inclusion criteria established to answer the PECO question were included. Two review authors independently searched for studies, screened the titles and abstracts, did full‐text analysis, extracted the data from the included reports, and performed the risk of bias assessment through an adaptation of the Newcastle/Ottawa tool for cross‐sectional studies and of the JBI critical appraisal checklist. In case of disagreement, a third reviewer author took the final decision. Study results were summarized using random effects meta‐analyses.


A total of 12 studies were included, involving 1233 participants and 1513 implants. Peri‐implantitis was associated with the presence of S. epidermidis (Odds ratio, OR = 10.28 [95% Confidence interval, CI: 1.26–83.98]), F. nucleatum (OR = 7.83 [95% CI: 2.24–27.36]), T. denticola (OR = 6.11 [95% CI: 2.72–13.76]), T. forsythia (OR = 4.25 [95% CI: 1.71–10.57]), P. intermedia (OR = 3.79 [95% CI: 1.07–13.35]), and P. gingivalis (OR = 2.46 [95% CI: 1.21–5.00]). Conversely, the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans (OR = 3.82 [95% CI: 0.59–24.68]), S. aureus (OR = 1.05 [95% CI: 0.06–17.08]), and C. rectus (OR = 1.48 [95% CI: 0.69–3.17]) was not associated with peri‐implantitis.


Peri‐implantitis is associated with the presence of S. epidermidis and specific periodontopathogens (P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, T. denticola, F. nucleatum, and P. intermedia). (CRD42021254589)

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