Cristian Cobilinschi, Cosmin-Andrei Andrei, Ioana Marina Grinţescu, Liliana Mirea

Metabolic failure due to thiamine deficiency during critical illness

  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)

Purpose of review Thiamine is a crucial component in cellular energy metabolism, serving as a cofactor for multiple enzymatic processes and also having a role in regulating neuronal and neuromuscular transmission. Also it exerts antioxidant proprieties. The objective of this review is to consolidate and assess the most recent research concerning the consequences of insufficient thiamine levels for critically ill patients and to examine thiamine-related interventions. Recent findings Recent studies have unveiled a noteworthy association between thiamine deficiency and unfavorable consequences, such as heightened morbidity and fatality rates. The aforementioned deficiency exhibits a significant presence in medical situations such as starvation and alcohol use disorder, but also in patients during critical illness. Thiamine deficiency can have significant metabolic implications resulting in compromised energy generation and organ dysfunction, warranting prompt recognition and management. Summary Thiamine deficiency may not be recognized in critical care. Timely identification and management are imperative to mitigate adverse outcomes and improve patient prognosis. Thiamine may offer benefits for specific patient groups at higher risk of deficiency. Future studies should focus to establish optimal dosing, timing, and monitoring strategies on understanding the pathophysiological changes associated with thiamine deficiency in ICU patients and clarify its role in improving clinical outcomes.

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