DOI: 10.3390/atmos14081236 ISSN: 2073-4433

Machine-Learning-Based Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling Associated with Mw > 6 Earthquakes in America

Munawar Shah, Rasim Shahzad, Punyawi Jamjareegulgarn, Bushra Ghaffar, José Francisco de Oliveira-Júnior, Ahmed M. Hassan, Nivin A. Ghamry
  • Atmospheric Science
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)

The identification of atmospheric and ionospheric variations through multiple remote sensing and global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs) has contributed substantially to the development of the lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling (LAIC) phenomenon over earthquake (EQ) epicenters. This study presents an approach for investigating the Petrolia EQ (Mw 6.2; dated 20 December 2021) and the Monte Cristo Range EQ (Mw 6.5; dated 15 May 2020) through several parameters to observe the precursory signals of various natures. These parameters include Land Surface Temperature (LST), Air Temperature (AT), Relative Humidity (RH), Air Pressure (AP), Outgoing Longwave Radiations (OLRs), and vertical Total Electron Content (TEC), and these are used to contribute to the development of LAIC in the temporal window of 30 days before and 15 days after the main shock. We observed a sharp increase in the LST in both the daytime and nighttime of the Petrolia EQ, but only an enhancement in the daytime LST for the Monte Cristo Range EQ within 3–7 days before the main shock. Similarly, a negative peak was observed in RH along with an increment in the OLR 5–7 days prior to both impending EQs. Furthermore, the Monte Cristo Range EQ also exhibited synchronized ionospheric variation with other atmospheric parameters, but no such co-located and synchronized anomalies were observed for the Petrolia EQ. We also applied machine learning (ML) methods to confirm these abrupt variations as anomalies to further aid certain efforts in the development of the LAIC in order to forecast EQs in the future. The ML methods also make prominent the variation in the different data.

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