DOI: 10.1002/admt.202300407 ISSN: 2365-709X

Laser Direct Writing of Crystallized TiO2 by Photothermal Effect Induced by Gold Nanoparticles

Laurent Noel, Amine Khitous, Céline Molinaro, Hsiao‐Wen Zan, Dominique Berling, Fabien Grasset, Olivier Soppera
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • General Materials Science


Near‐infrared (NIR) laser annealing is successfully used to crystallize TiO2 thin films from a sol–gel solution deposited on gold nanoparticle arrays (AuNPs). The AuNPs are used as nano‐heaters allowing a local temperature increase up to 500 °C in the film. The temperature reached under the laser is deduced from the presence of the anatase phase in the samples obtained by laser exposure, showing that crystallized TiO2 can be obtained by the photothermal effect. Different analytical techniques supported this study, such as grazing X‐ray diffraction (GIXRD), UV–vis, and Raman spectroscopy. The temperature increase is confirmed by a numerical model that emphasizes the role of NPs coupling in the photothermal effect. Direct laser patterning by NIR laser and in combination with Deep‐UV photolithography (DUV) are demonstrated. This fabrication method opens new perspectives in applications such as photonics, photocatalysis, or biosensing.

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