DOI: 10.1093/ckj/sfad303 ISSN: 2048-8505

Gut-immune axis and cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease

Felix Behrens, Hendrik Bartolomaeus, Nicola Wilck, Johannes Holle
  • Transplantation
  • Nephrology


Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) suffer from marked cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, so lowering the cardiovascular risk is paramount to improve quality of life and survival in CKD. Manifold mechanisms are hold accountable for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and recently inflammation arose as novel risk factor significantly contributing to progression of CVD. While the gut microbiome was identified as key regulator of immunity and inflammation in several disease, CKD-related microbiome-immune interaction gains increasing importance. Here, we summarize the latest knowledge on microbiome dysbiosis in CKD, subsequent changes in bacterial and host metabolism and how this drives inflammation and CVD in CKD. Moreover, we outline potential therapeutic targets along the gut-immune-cardiovascular axis that could aid combat CVD development and high mortality in CKD.

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