DOI: 10.1002/met.2191 ISSN: 1350-4827

Fog climatology at Shanghai Pudong International Airport

Ran Hao, Rui Lyu, Xue Hao, Jun Yi, Weijie Wang, Tiantao Cheng, Bo Xu
  • Atmospheric Science


Using 22‐year ground observations on meteorological variables, we conducted a statistical analysis to reveal fog characteristics at Shanghai Pudong International Airport (SPIA). Fog events were classified by fog types using an objective method. Two types of advection fogs are dominant in fog events at SPIA, followed by radiation fogs. Different fogs have evident annual and monthly variations in frequency. Advection fog mostly appear from February to April, while radiation fog is mainly between November and February. Six synoptic patterns associated with fogs were determine by a self‐organizing maps cluster method, two of which, namely ‘west of marine high pressure’ and ‘inverted trough’, are most favourable for the formation of advection fogs, whereas ‘bottom of weak cold high‐pressure’ is favourable for radiation fogs. The frequency of advection fog occurrence exhibits temporal fluctuations with distinct peaks occurring 2–3 h after sunset, around midnight, and 1–2 h before sunrise, while almost all radiation fog occur in the second half of the night, and favourable conditions for fog onset become more effective with the length of the night. Radiation fog exhibits a longer duration than advection fog and tends to result in lower visibility. The prevalent wind direction for the formation of advection fog is generally from the east to the southeast, whereas radiation fog is typically associated with westerly winds. The temperature and air pressure during the formation of both advection and radiation fogs follow a normal distribution in most seasons. More fog characteristics were categorized by fog types and seasons.

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