Hiroyuki Hagino

Feasibility of Measuring Brake-Wear Particle Emissions from a Regenerative-Friction Brake Coordination System via Dynamometer Testing

  • Atmospheric Science
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)

Emissions of brake-wear particles are commonly associated with vehicular traffic. We investigated the feasibility of quantifying brake-wear particle emissions under realistic vehicle driving and braking conditions with a currently used regenerative friction brake coordination system. We used a braking system installed in commercially available plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and found that it reduced emissions by 85% for PM10, 78% for PM2.5, and 87% for particle numbers (PNs) compared with the system installed in vehicles with internal combustion engines. Brake friction work showed a linear relationship with PM10 and PM2.5. Nanoparticle PM emissions tended to increase slightly with regenerative braking but did not contribute significantly to the overall PM percentage. The emission events of high concentrations of nuclei-mode particles (<20 nm in diameter) in electric vehicle brake assemblies designed for regenerative braking use under high-temperature, high-load braking conditions with full-friction brakes. The nuclei-mode particles amplified the PN emissions and led to high variability. In strict regulatory certification tests where measurement reproducibility and stability are required, it is appropriate to measure PNs under brake conditions appropriate for the actual use of electric vehicles rather than under full-friction brake conditions or to remove particle measurements smaller than 20 nm.

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