Claire Caron, Giulia Bertolin

Cristae shaping and dynamics in mitochondrial function

  • Cell Biology

ABSTRACT Mitochondria are multifunctional organelles of key importance for cell homeostasis. The outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) envelops the organelle, and the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) is folded into invaginations called cristae. As cristae composition and functions depend on the cell type and stress conditions, they recently started to be considered as a dynamic compartment. A number of proteins are known to play a role in cristae architecture, such as OPA1, MIC60, LETM1, the prohibitin (PHB) complex and the F1FO ATP synthase. Furthermore, phospholipids are involved in the maintenance of cristae ultrastructure and dynamics. The use of new technologies, including super-resolution microscopy to visualize cristae dynamics with superior spatiotemporal resolution, as well as high-content techniques and datasets have not only allowed the identification of new cristae proteins but also helped to explore cristae plasticity. However, a number of open questions remain in the field, such as whether cristae-resident proteins are capable of changing localization within mitochondria, or whether mitochondrial proteins can exit mitochondria through export. In this Review, we present the current view on cristae morphology, stability and composition, and address important outstanding issues that might pave the way to future discoveries.

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