Aakash Nathani, Li Sun, Islauddin Khan, Mounika Aare, Arvind Bagde, Yan Li, Mandip Singh

Combined Role of Interleukin-15 Stimulated Natural Killer Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles and Carboplatin in Osimertinib-Resistant H1975 Lung Cancer Cells with EGFR Mutations

  • Pharmaceutical Science

In this study, we evaluated IL-15 stimulated natural killer cell-derived EVs (NK-EVs) as therapeutic agents in vitro and in vivo in Osimertinib-resistant lung cancer (H1975R) with EGFR mutations (L858R) in combination with carboplatin (CBP). NK-EVs were isolated by ultracentrifugation and characterized by nanoparticle tracking analysis, and atomic force microscopy imaging revealed vesicles with a spherical form and sizes meeting the criteria of exosomal EVs. Further, Western blot studies demonstrated the presence of regular EV markers along with specific NK markers (perforin and granzyme). EVs were also characterized by proteomic analysis, which demonstrated that EVs had proteins for natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity (Granzyme B) and T cell activation (perforin and plastin-2). Gene oncology analysis showed that these differentially expressed proteins are involved in programmed cell death and positive regulation of cell death. Further, isolated NK-EVs were cytotoxic to H1975R cells in vitro in 2D and 3D cell cultures. CBP’s IC50 was reduced by approximately in 2D and 3D cell cultures when combined with NK-EVs. The EVs were then combined with CBP and administered by i.p. route to H1975R tumor xenografts, and a significant reduction in tumor volume in vivo was observed. Our findings show for the first time that NK-EVs target the PD-L1/PD-1 immunological checkpoint to induce apoptosis and anti-inflammatory response by downregulation of SOD2, PARP, BCL2, SET, NF-κB, and TGF-ß. The ability to isolate functional NK-EVs on a large scale and use them with platinum-based drugs may lead to new clinical applications. The results of the present study suggest the possibility of the combination of NK-cell-derived EVs and CBP as a viable immunochemotherapeutic strategy for resistant cancers.

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