DOI: 10.3390/sym16010017 ISSN: 2073-8994

Chiral Separation of Vildagliptin by Capillary Electrophoresis—The Study of Enantiomeric Complexation

Lajos Attila Papp, Gabriel Hancu, Zoltán István Szabó, Blanka Székely-Szentmiklósi, Tamás Gáti, Béla Fiser, Márta Kraszni, Gergő Tóth
  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)
  • General Mathematics
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)

Vildagliptin (VIL) is a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus; in therapy, it is available as the enantiomerically pure S-VIL, the other enantiomer R-VIL being considered as an enantiomeric impurity. A systematic screening of 16 cyclodextrin (CD) derivatives as chiral selectors was performed at three pH levels using phosphate (pH 2.5, pH 7.0) and acetate (pH 4.5) buffers. Method optimization employed an experimental design approach, systematically investigating the effect of buffer and CD concentration, buffer pH, capillary temperature, and applied voltage on the chiral resolution and analysis time. The method’s analytical performance was thoroughly assessed and subsequently employed for determining the enantiomeric purity of VIL in a pharmaceutical formulation. The properties of the inclusion complexes, such as stoichiometry and atomic level intermolecular host–guest interactions were studied by NMR measurements and molecular modeling. Native α-CD at acidic pH has demonstrated its exceptional suitability for the separation of VIL enantiomers with a favorable migration order (R-VIL followed by S-VIL). The optimized analytical conditions (75 mM acetate buffer, pH 4.5, containing 50 mM α-CD, 18 kV applied voltage, and 15 °C capillary temperature) provided a baseline separation of VIL enantiomers within 9 min. The developed method represents a cost-effective alternative to the enantiomeric impurity control of VIL. Symmetry is often a fundamental aspect of molecular structures and interactions, and our detailed analysis of the chiral recognition process contributes to the understanding of symmetry-related aspects in molecular systems. This developed method not only offers a cost-effective alternative for the enantiomeric impurity control of VIL but also provides valuable information regarding the mechanism of the chiral recognition process, aligning with the broader themes of symmetry in molecular sciences.

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