DOI: 10.3390/atmos15010018 ISSN: 2073-4433

Characterization of the Energy Balance of Wheat Grown under Irrigation in the Hot, Arid Environment of Sudan

Almutaz Abdelkarim Abdelfattah Mohammed, Mitsuru Tsubo, Yasunori Kurosaki, Yasuomi Ibaraki
  • Atmospheric Science
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)

An analysis of the crop microclimate is essential for assessing the climate’s appropriateness for cultivation. Here, the Bowen ratio (BR) was used to characterize the energy balance in an irrigated wheat field in a hot, arid environment in Sudan. The hourly BR was calculated using micrometeorological data, including net radiation (Rn) and soil heat flux (G), observed in the 2021–2022 and 2022–2023 growing seasons (December–March) and used to compute hourly daytime latent heat (LE) and sensible heat (H) fluxes during the days before and after irrigation. In both seasons, the observed significant evaporative cooling effect of irrigation led to a daily maximum temperature difference of 2.5–5.7 °C between the wheat field and a nearby meteorological station in a non-vegetated desert area. The energy balance calculation results showed that LE was dominant over H and G. Because BR tended to be negative, H was negative; thus, LE was larger than Rn because of sensible heat advection from the surrounding area. Further, a decrease in G after irrigation indicated an alteration in the soil’s thermal properties. These results provide insights into the micrometeorological response of irrigated wheat to a hot, arid environment and useful information for understanding soil–plant–atmosphere interactions in hot, dry environments.

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