Patrick Hagen, Joseph Norton, Stephanie Tsai, Loredana Campo, Mary Lee, Kayeromi Gomez, Patrick Stiff

Busulfan, melphalan and carfilzomib high‐dose chemotherapy and autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in multiple myeloma

  • Hematology

SummaryThe standard of care for fit, newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients includes induction therapy followed by consolidative high‐dose chemotherapy with melphalan and autologous stem cell transplant (AHSCT). Intensified preparative regimens, such as busulfan and melphalan (BuMel), have shown promise to lengthen progression‐free survival (PFS). We previously reported that the addition of bortezomib to BuMel improved PFS compared to melphalan alone in CIBMTR‐matched controls. We now integrate the second‐generation protease inhibitor, carfilzomib, before and after BuMel (BuMelCar) in a phase I/II trial with carfilzomib. Patients with NDMM, relapsed/refractory MM (RRMM) and those failing prior AHSCT were eligible. Primary end‐points were safety and tolerability. Secondary end‐points included minimal residual disease negativity rates, PFS and OS. The study enrolled 19 patients. 73% were high risk either due to R‐ISS III status, adverse genetics or relapsed after prior AHSCT. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of carfilzomib was determined to be 36 mg/m2. Noted grade 3 toxicities were febrile neutropenia (79%), mucositis (21%) and diarrhoea (16%). The 2‐year PFS for the whole cohort and MTD was 89% and 100% respectively. 80% of all patients and 82% of patients in the MTD cohort achieved MRD negativity. Further studies regarding this regimen are planned.

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