Behrouz Seyfinejad, Emirhan Nemutlu, Ali Taghizadieh, Maryam Khoubnasabjafari, Sibel A Ozkan, Abolghasem Jouyban

Biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate as fingerprints of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma–chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap: a critical review

  • Biochemistry (medical)
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Drug Discovery

Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma–COPD overlap are the third leading cause of mortality around the world. They share some common features, which can lead to misdiagnosis. To properly manage these conditions, reliable markers for early and accurate diagnosis are needed. Over the past 20 years, many molecules have been investigated in the exhaled breath condensate to better understand inflammation pathways and mechanisms related to these disorders. Recently, more advanced techniques, such as sensitive metabolomic and proteomic profiling, have been used to obtain a more comprehensive understanding. This article reviews the use of targeted and untargeted metabolomic methodology to study asthma, COPD and asthma–COPD overlap.

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