S. A. Sivaraman, V. Sabareesh

An Update on Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Inhibiting Peptides

  • Cell Biology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Biochemistry
  • General Medicine

Abstract: Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder. According to the International Diabetes Federation, about 537 million people are living with diabetes. The two types of diabetes are type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), among which the population affected by T2DM is relatively higher. A major reason for T2DM is that insulin stimulation is hampered due to the inactivation of incretin hormones. Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) is a serine protease that is directly involved in the inactivation of incretin hormones, e.g., glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Therefore, the inhibition of DPP-IV can be a promising method for managing T2DM, in addition to other enzyme inhibition strategies, such as inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Currently, about 12 different gliptin drugs are available in the market that inhibits DPP-IV in a dose-dependent manner. Instead of gliptins, peptides can also be employed as an alternative and promising way to inhibit DPP-IV. Peptide inhibitors of DPP-IV have been identified in various plants and animals. Chemically synthesized peptides have also been experimented with for inhibiting DPP-IV. Most peptides have been analysed by biochemical assays, whereas some in vitro assays have also been reported. Molecular docking analysis is applied to comprehend the mechanism of inhibition. In this review, certain aspects of natural as well as synthetic peptides are described that have been proven to inhibit DPP-IV.

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