Altered microbiota, antimicrobial resistance genes, and functional enzyme profiles in the rumen of yak calves fed with milk replacerYimin Zhuang, Wei Guo, Kai Cui, Yan Tu, Qiyu Diao, Naifeng Zhang, Yanliang Bi, Tao Ma
- Infectious Diseases
- Cell Biology
- Microbiology (medical)
- General Immunology and Microbiology
The use of milk replacer (MR) is a modern strategy to ensure the health and growth of neonatal ruminants. Some studies have confirmed that dietary factors have significant effects on ruminal antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs), which, as a potential threat to livestock, have received more attention. However, the effect of different milk sources (milk or MR) on the rumen resistome of yaks is still largely unknown. Here, using metagenome technology, we investigated the occurrence of ruminal ARGs in yaks and their relationship with rumen bacteria in response to different milk sources. The metagenomic result showed that MR feeding significantly increased the abundance of Prevotella members compared to milk feeding. A total of 138 rumen resistome-conveying ARGs to 17 different classes of antimicrobials were detected, of which tetracycline resistance was the predominant. MR feeding also drove the changes in the rumen resistome, and the predicted bacterial origins of ARGs had complex and various manifestations. Moreover, enzymes of butyrate metabolism and carbohydrate-active enzymes encoding carbohydrate and cellulose degradation were increased. This study revealed that MR feeding increased the abundance of beneficial bacteria Prevotella members, changed the microbial resistome, and promoted the metabolic function of volatile fatty acid biosynthesis in the rumen of yaks, which could provide beneficial evidence for the regulation of the rumen microbiome and the intervention of antimicrobial resistance in ruminants by dietary or nutritional methods.
Yaks, as ruminants inhabiting high-altitude environments, possess a distinct rumen microbiome and are resistant to extreme living conditions. This study investigated the microbiota, resistome, and functional gene profiles in the rumen of yaks fed milk or milk replacer (MR), providing insights into the regulation of the rumen microbiome and the intervention of antimicrobial resistance in yaks through dietary methods. The abundance of Prevotella members increased significantly in response to MR. Tetracycline resistance was the most predominant. The rumen of yaks contained multiple antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) originating from different bacteria, which could be driven by MR, and these ARGs displayed intricate and complex interactions. MR also induced changes in functional genes. The enzymes associated with fiber degradation and butyrate metabolism were activated and showed close correlations with Prevotella members and butyrate concentration. This study allows us to deeply understand the ruminal microbiome and ARGs of yaks and their relationship with rumen bacteria in response to different milk sources.