DOI: 10.1177/21925682231218003 ISSN: 2192-5682

Alterations in Magnitude and Shape of Thoracic Kyphosis Following Surgical Correction for Adult Spinal Deformity

Renaud Lafage, Junho Song, Bassel Diebo, Alan H. Daniels, Peter G. Passias, Christopher P. Ames, Shay Bess, Robert Eastlack, Munish C. Gupta, Richard Hostin, Khaled Kebaish, Han Jo Kim, Eric Klineberg, Gregory M. Mundis, Justin S. Smith, Christopher Shaffrey, Frank Schwab, Virginie Lafage, Douglas Burton,
  • Neurology (clinical)
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Surgery

Study Design

Retrospective review of prospective multicenter data.


This study aimed to investigate the shape of TK before and after fusion in ASD patients treated with long fusion.


ASD patients undergoing posterior spinal fusions including at least T5 to L1 without prior fusion extending to the thoracic spine were included. Patients were categorized based on the preoperative T1-T12 kyphosis into: Hypo-TK (if < 30°), Normal-TK, and Hyper-TK (if > 70°). Regional kyphosis at T10-L1 (Distal), T5-T10 (Middle), and T1-T5 (Proximal) and their relative contributions to total kyphosis were compared between groups, and the pre-to postoperative changes were investigated using paired t test.


In total, 329 patients were included in this analysis (mean age: 57 ± 16 years, 79.6% female). Preoperative T1-T12 TK for the entire cohort was 40.9 ± 2° (32% Hypo-TK, 11% Hyper-TK, 57% Normal-TK). The Hypo-TK group had the smallest distal TK (5.9 vs 17.1 & 26.0), and middle TK (8.0 vs 25.3 & 45.4), but the percentage of contribution to total kyphosis was not significantly different (Distal: 24.1% vs 34.1% vs 32.8%; Middle: 46.6% vs 53.9% vs 56.8%, all P > .1). Postoperatively, T1-12 TK increased significantly (40.9 ± 2.0° vs 57.8 ± 17.6°). Each group had a decrease in distal kyphosis (Hypo-TK 2.6 ± 10.4°; Normal-TK 8.9 ± 11.5°; Hyper-TK 14.9 ± 12°, all P < .05). The middle kyphosis significantly decreased for Hyper-TK (11.8 ± 12.4) and increased for both Normal-TK and Hypo-TK (3.8 ± 11° and 14.2 ± 11°). Proximal TK increased significantly for all groups by 14-18°. Deterioration from Normal-TK to Hyper-TK postoperatively was associated with lower rate of patient satisfaction (59.6% vs 77.3%, P = .032).


Posterior spinal fusion for ASD alters the magnitude and shape of thoracic kyphosis. While 60% of patients had a normal TK at baseline, 30% of those patients developed iatrogenic hyperkyphosis postoperatively. Patients with baseline hypokyphosis were more likely to be corrected to normal TK than hyperkyphotic patients. Future research should investigate TK restoration in ASD and its impact on clinical outcomes and complications.

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