DOI: 10.1302/1358-992x.2024.1.114 ISSN: 1358-992X


M. Maglio, M. Tschon, M. Sartori, L. Martini, M. Rocchi, D. Dallari, G. Giavaresi, M. Fini

The use of implant biomaterials for prosthetic reconstructive surgery and osteosynthesis is consolidated in the orthopaedic field, improving the quality of life of patients and allowing for healthy and better ageing. However, there is the lack of advanced innovative methods to investigate the potentialities of smart biomaterials, particularly for the study of local effects of implant and osteointegration. Despite the complex process of osseointegration is difficult to recreate in vitro, the growing challenges in developing alternative models require to set-up and validate new approaches. Aim of the present study is to evaluate an advanced in vitro tissue culture model of osteointegration of titanium implants in human trabecular bone. Cubic samples (1.5×1.5 cm) of trabecular bone were harvested as waste material from hip arthroplasty surgery (CE AVEC 829/2019/Sper/IOR); cylindrical defects (2 mm Ø, 6 mm length) were created, and tissue specimens assigned to the following groups: 1) empty defects- CTR-; 2) defects implanted with a cytotoxic copper pin (Merck cod. 326429)- CTR+; 3) defects implanted with standard titanium pins of 6 µm-rough (ZARE S.r.l) -Ti6. Tissue specimens were cultured in mini rotating bioreactors in standard conditions, weekly assessing viability. At the 8-week-timepoint, immunoenzymatic, microtomographic, histological and histomorphometric analyses were performed. The model was able to simulate the effects of implantation of the materials, showing a drop in viability in CTR+, differently from Ti6 which appears to have a trophic effect on the bone. MicroCT and histological analysis supported the results, with lower BV/TV and Tb.Th values observed in CTR- compared to CTR+ and Ti6 and signs of matrix and bone deposition at the implant site. The collected data suggest the reliability of the tested model which can recreate the osseointegration process in vitro and can therefore be used for preliminary evaluations to reduce and refine in vivo preclinical models.

Acknowledgment: This work was supported by Emilia-Romagna Region for the project “Sviluppo di modelli biologici in vitro ed in silico per la valutazione e predizione dell'osteointegrazione di dispositivi medici da impianto nel tessuto osseo”

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