DOI: 10.1200/jco.2024.42.3_suppl.722 ISSN: 0732-183X

Adjuvant radiotherapy after curative resection of hepatocellular carcinoma with narrow margin (≤1 cm): A phase 2, multicenter, randomized controlled trial.

Kuang Ming, Zhenwei Peng, Zebin Chen, Shunli Shen, Bin Li
  • Cancer Research
  • Oncology


Background: RAISE is a multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group phase 2 trial, aiming to assess the efficacy and safety of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) compared with active surveillance in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with narrow margin (≤ 1 cm) following curative resection. Methods: HCC patients with narrow margin were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either IMRT (Surgery-IMRT group) or active surveillance (Surgery group) after hepatectomy. Randomized stratification factors include tumor size (≤ 5 vs. > 5 cm) and microvascular invasion (presence vs. absence). In the Surgery-IMRT group, patients received IMRT within 1-3 months after surgical resection. The prescription dose was planned at 50-60 gray in 25-30 fractions over 5-6 weeks. The primary endpoint was recurrence free survival (RFS). The secondary endpoints were safety and overall survival (OS). The planned sample size was 148 patients in total to obtain an improvement in the 2-year RFS rate from 45% to 65%, to detect a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.54, with a one-sided alpha of 5% and 80% power. Results: Between January 15, 2019, and September 15, 2023, 148 patients from 6 hospitals in China were randomized: 74 patients were allocated to the Surgery-IMRT group and 74 to the Surgery group. The median follow-up duration was 27.4 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 23.2-29.2 months). The 2-year RFS was 78.37% (95% CI 64.35%–87.40%) for the Surgery-IMRT group and 57.43% (95% CI 43.25%–69.28%) for the Surgery group (P=0.028). The median OS was not reached for the two groups. The following radiotherapy-related grade 3–4 adverse events were 3 thrombocytopenia, 3 neutropenia, and 1 hemoglobin decreased. Conclusions: In conclusion, this trial showed that the adjuvant IMRT following curative resection can bring survival benefits of RFS for HCC patients with narrow margin. Clinical trial information: NCT03732105 .

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