DOI: 10.1302/1358-992x.2024.1.061 ISSN: 1358-992X


G. Graziani

Functionalization of biomimetic nanomaterials allows to reproduce the composition of native bone, permitting better regeneration, while nanoscale surface morphologies provide cues for cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. Functionalization of 3D printed and bioprinted constructs, by plasma-assisted deposition of calcium phosphates-based (CaP) nanostructured coatings and by nanoparticles, respectively, will be presented. Stoichiometric and ion doped CaP- based nanocoatings, including green materials (mussel seashells and cuttlefish bone), will be introduced to guide tissue regeneration. We will show interactions between biomimetic surfaces and MSCs to address bone regeneration and SAOS-2 cells for bone tumor models. Our results show that combining AM and nanostructured biomimetic films permits to reproduce the architecture and the mechanical and compositional characteristics of bone. Stability behavior of the coatings, as well as MSCs behavior strongly depend on the starting CaP material, with more soluble CaPs and ion-doped ones showing better biological behavior. Green materials appear promising, as biomimetic films can be successfully obtained upon conversion of the marine precursors into hydroxyapatite. Last-not-least, nanoparticles-loaded scaffolds could be bioprinting without loss of cell viability, but ink characteristics depend on ion-doping as demonstrated for SAOS-2 cells over 14 days of culture. Biomimetic nanomaterials for functionalization in AM is a promising approach for bone modelling and regeneration.

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