Acoustic transmission loss observed on a tomographic array in the Beaufort Gyre during 2016–2017Peter F. Worcester, Matthew A. Dzieciuch, Heriberto J. Vazquez, John A. Colosi, Richard A. Krishfield
- Acoustics and Ultrasonics
- Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
The Arctic Ocean is undergoing dramatic changes. The 2016–2017 Canada Basin Acoustic Propagation Experiment (CANAPE) was conducted to assess the effects of the changes in the sea ice and ocean structure in the Beaufort Gyre on low-frequency underwater acoustic propagation and ambient sound. An ocean acoustic tomography array with a radius of 150 km that consisted of six transceivers and a long vertical receiving array measured the impulse responses of the ocean every four hours using broadband signals with center frequencies that ranged from 172.5 to 275 Hz. Ice-profiling sonar data showed a gradual increase in ice draft over the winter with daily median ice drafts reaching maxima of about 1.5 m, suggesting that the ice was first-year ice. The transmission loss of early, resolved ray arrivals from steep ray paths with lower turning depths below 500 m was lowest when open water was present and increased as the ice draft increased. The transmission loss per surface reflection increased with center frequency and surface grazing angle. The values are greater than observed during the 1988–1989 Greenland Sea Tomography experiment, but the ice conditions likely differed significantly.