DOI: 10.3390/rs15174276 ISSN:

A Signal Model Based on the Space–Time Coding Array and a Novel Imaging Method Based on the Hybrid Correlation Algorithm for F-SCAN SAR

Yuqing Liu, Pengbo Wang, Zhirong Men, Yanan Guo, Tao He, Rui Bao, Lei Cui
  • General Earth and Planetary Sciences

The F-SCAN principle is a better alternative to the scan-on-receive technique (SCORE) based on digital beamforming (DBF), which can avoid low gain caused by a conventional broad beam in the case of a wide swath. In F-SCAN SAR, a pencil beam scans the entire target area from far to near, providing high energy independent of the position and ensuring a low range ambiguity-to-signal ratio (RASR). Moreover, echo compression can be achieved via appropriate system parameter configuration, significantly shortening the receive window and reducing the amount of data. A wider range swath can, therefore, be achieved. However, for this novel F-SCAN SAR working mode, signal modeling and imaging processing are key issues that needed to be addressed. In this paper, the far-field synthetic antenna pattern of the space–time coding array (STCA) is first derived and analyzed, based on which the signal modeling of the F-SCAN SAR is carried out. Then, according to the signal model and echo characteristics, a novel imaging processing method based on the hybrid correlation algorithm is presented for the F-SCAN SAR. First, the dechirp operation is performed to compensate for the quadratic phase of the range time. The range compressed result is obtained after a range Fourier transform, where different range targets are successfully separated and range aliasing is avoided. Then, the modified azimuth reference function is correlated with the echo at each range cell to complete range cell migration correction (RCMC) and azimuth compensation. The received signal parameters and the Doppler parameters of each range cell are derived to update the azimuth reference function. Finally, accurate focused results are obtained in the range-frequency, azimuth-time domain. The simulation results indicate that the signal model based on the STCA can satisfy the requirements of the F-SCAN principle, and the proposed imaging algorithm can complete the precise focusing processing of the F-SCAN SAR echo.

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