DOI: 10.1177/10915818231221276 ISSN: 1091-5818

A Retrospective Comparison of Electrocardiographic Parameters in Ketamine and Tiletamine-Zolazepam Anesthetized Indian Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

Laxit K. Bhatt, Chitrang R. Shah, Shital D. Patel, Sudhir R. Patel, Vipul A. Patel, Rajesh J. Patel, Nikita M. Joshi, Niraj A Shah, Jitendra H. Patel, Pankaj Dwivedi, Rajesh Sundar, Mukul R. Jain
  • Toxicology

Electrocardiographic evaluation is performed in rhesus monkeys to establish the cardiovascular safety of candidate molecules before progressing to clinical trials. These animals are usually immobilized chemically by ketamine (KTM) and tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ) to obtain a steady-state heart rate and to ensure adequate human safety. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of these anesthetic regimens on different electrocardiographic parameters. Statistically significant lower HR and higher P-wave duration, RR, QRS, and QT intervals were observed in the KTM-anesthetized group in comparison to TZ-anesthetized animals. No significant changes were noticed in the PR interval and p-wave amplitude. Sex-based significance amongst these parameters was observed in male and female animals of TZ- and KTM-anesthetized groups. Regression analysis of four QTc formulas in TZ-anesthetized rhesus monkeys revealed that QTcNAK (Nakayama) better corrected the QT interval than QTcHAS (Hassimoto), QTcBZT (Bazett), and QTcFRD (Fridericia) formulas. QTcNAK exhibited the least correlation with the RR interval (slope closest to zero and r = .01) and displayed no statistical significance between male and female animals. These data will prove useful in the selection of anesthetic regimens for chemical restraint of rhesus monkeys in nonclinical safety evaluation studies.

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