DOI: 10.1002/ardp.202300316 ISSN: 0365-6233

6‐Aminocoumarin oxime‐ether/sulfonamides as selective hCA IX and XII inhibitors: Synthesis, evaluation, and molecular dynamics studies

Shaik Mahammad Ghouse, Kareena Sinha, Alessandro Bonardi, Gaurav Pawar, Satyaveni Malasala, Srikanth Danaboina, Arifuddin Mohammed, Venkata M. Yaddanapudi, Claudiu T. Supuran, Srinivas Nanduri
  • Drug Discovery
  • Pharmaceutical Science


Carbonic anhydrase isoforms IX and XII are overexpressed in hypoxic tumor cells regulating various physiological processes such as cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis, resulting in the onset and spread of cancer. Selective inhibition of these enzymes is a promising strategy for anticancer therapy. Coumarin derivatives were identified as selective and potent inhibitors of these isoforms. This study reports 6‐aminocoumarin sulfonamide and oxime ether derivatives linked through a chloroacetyl moiety tethered to piperazine and piperidone, respectively, showing selective inhibition against human carbonic anhydrase (hCA) IX and XII with Ki ranging from 0.51 to 1.18 µM and 0.89–4.43 µM. While the sulfonamide derivative 8a exhibited submicromolar inhibition against hCA IX and XII with Ki 0.89 and 0.51 µM, the oxime ether derivatives showed lower activity than the sulfonamides, with the compound 5n inhibiting hCA IX and hCA XII with a Ki of 1.055 and 0.70 µM, respectively. The above results demonstrate the potential of these derivatives as selective, potent inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase IX and XII and provide a foundation for further optimization and development as effective anticancer agents. Further, the binding mode of the synthesized derivatives in the active site were examined using molecular docking and dynamic simulation studies.

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