DOI: 10.3390/vaccines11081304 ISSN: 2076-393X

Next-Generation TB Vaccines: Progress, Challenges, and Prospects

Li Zhuang, Zhaoyang Ye, Linsheng Li, Ling Yang, Wenping Gong
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Drug Discovery
  • Pharmacology
  • Immunology

Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), is a prevalent global infectious disease and a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Currently, the only available vaccine for TB prevention is Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG). However, BCG demonstrates limited efficacy, particularly in adults. Efforts to develop effective TB vaccines have been ongoing for nearly a century. In this review, we have examined the current obstacles in TB vaccine research and emphasized the significance of understanding the interaction mechanism between MTB and hosts in order to provide new avenues for research and establish a solid foundation for the development of novel vaccines. We have also assessed various TB vaccine candidates, including inactivated vaccines, attenuated live vaccines, subunit vaccines, viral vector vaccines, DNA vaccines, and the emerging mRNA vaccines as well as virus-like particle (VLP)-based vaccines, which are currently in preclinical stages or clinical trials. Furthermore, we have discussed the challenges and opportunities associated with developing different types of TB vaccines and outlined future directions for TB vaccine research, aiming to expedite the development of effective vaccines. This comprehensive review offers a summary of the progress made in the field of novel TB vaccines.

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