DOI: 10.3390/molecules28155812 ISSN: 1420-3049

Antimicrobial, Antibiofilm, and Anticancer Activities of Syzygium aromaticum Essential Oil Nanoemulsion

Amr M. Shehabeldine, Ahmed S. Doghish, Walaa A. El-Dakroury, Mahmoud M. H. Hassanin, Abdulaziz A. Al-Askar, Hamada AbdElgawad, Amr H. Hashem
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Drug Discovery
  • Pharmaceutical Science

In the current study, clove oil nanoemulsion (CL-nanoemulsion) and emulsion (CL-emulsion) were prepared through an ecofriendly method. The prepared CL-nanoemulsion and CL-emulsion were characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM), where results illustrated that CL-nanoemulsion droplets were approximately 32.67 nm in size and spherical in shape, while CL-nanoemulsion droplets were approximately 225.8 nm with a spherical shape. The antibacterial activity of CL-nanoemulsion and CL-emulsion was carried out using a microbroth dilution method. Results revealed that the preferred CL-nanoemulsion had minimal MIC values between 0.31 and 5 mg/mL. The antibiofilm efficacy of CL-nanoemulsion against S. aureus significantly decreased the development of biofilm compared with CL-emulsion. Furthermore, results illustrated that CL-nanoemulsion showed antifungal activity significantly higher than CL-emulsion. Moreover, the prepared CL-nanoemulsion exhibited outstanding antifungal efficiency toward Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus brasiliensis, A. flavus, and A. fumigatus where MICs were 12.5, 3.12, 0.78, 1.56, and 1.56 mg/mL, respectively. Additionally, the prepared CL-nanoemulsion was analyzed for its antineoplastic effects through a modified MTT assay for evaluating apoptotic and cytotoxic effects using HepG2 and MCF-7 cell lines. MCF-7 breast cancer cells showed the lowest IC50 values (3.4-fold) in CL-nanoemulsion relative to that of CL-emulsion. Thus, CL-nanoemulsion induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells by inducing caspase-8 and -9 activity and suppressing VEGFR-2. In conclusion, the prepared CL-nanoemulsion had antibacterial, antifungal, and antibiofilm as well as anticancer properties, which can be used in different biomedical applications after extensive studies in vivo.

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