DOI: 10.1002/aenm.202304477 ISSN: 1614-6832

3D Crystal Framework Regulation Enables Se‐Functionalized Small Molecule Acceptors Achieve Over 19% Efficiency

Wei Gao, Ruijie Ma, Lei Zhu, Lang Li, Francis R. Lin, Top Archie Dela Peña, Jiaying Wu, Mingjie Li, Wenkai Zhong, Xuefei Wu, Zachary Fink, Chengbo Tian, Feng Liu, Zhanhua Wei, Alex K.‐Y. Jen, Gang Li
  • General Materials Science
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment


Se‐functionalized small molecule acceptors (SMAs) exhibit unique advantages in constructing materials with near‐infrared absorption, but their photovoltaic performance lags behind that of S‐containing analogs in organic solar cells (OSCs). Herein, two new Se‐containing SMAs, namely Se‐EH and Se‐EHp, are designed and synthesized by regulating bifurcation site of outer alkyl chain, which enables Se‐EH and Se‐EHp to form different 3D crystal frameworks from CH1007. Se‐EH displays tighter π–π stacking and denser packing framework with smaller‐sized pore structure induced by larger steric hindrance effect of outer alkyl chain branched at 2‐position, and a higher dielectric constant of PM6:Se‐EH active layer can be obtained. OSCs based on PM6:Se‐EH achieved very high PCEs of 18.58% in binary and 19.03% in ternary devices with a high FF approaching 80% for Se‐containing SMAs. A more significant alkyl chain steric hindrance effect in Se‐EH adjusts the molecular crystallization to form a favorable nanofiber interpenetrating network with an appropriate domain size to reduce rate of sub‐ns recombination and promote balanced transport of carriers. This work provides references for further design and development of highly efficient Se‐functionalized SMAs.

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