DOI: 10.3390/toxics12010035 ISSN: 2305-6304

2,4-D Herbicide-Induced Hepatotoxicity: Unveiling Disrupted Liver Functions and Associated Biomarkers

Rafael Xavier Martins, Matheus Carvalho, Maria Eduarda Maia, Bruno Flor, Terezinha Souza, Thiago Lopes Rocha, Luís M. Félix, Davi Farias
  • Chemical Health and Safety
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Toxicology

2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is a widely used herbicide worldwide and is frequently found in water samples. This knowledge has prompted studies on its effects on non-target organisms, revealing significant alterations to liver structure and function. In this review, we evaluated the literature on the hepatotoxicity of 2,4-D, focusing on morphological damages, toxicity biomarkers and affected liver functions. Searches were conducted on PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus and 83 articles were selected after curation. Among these studies, 72% used in vivo models and 30% used in vitro models. Additionally, 48% used the active ingredient, and 35% used commercial formulations in exposure experiments. The most affected biomarkers were related to a decrease in antioxidant capacity through alterations in the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and the levels of malondialdehyde. Changes in energy metabolism, lipids, liver function, and xenobiotic metabolism were also identified. Furthermore, studies about the effects of 2,4-D in mixtures with other pesticides were found, as well as hepatoprotection trials. The reviewed data indicate the essential role of reduction in antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress in 2,4-D-induced hepatotoxicity. However, the mechanism of action of the herbicide is still not fully understood and further research in this area is necessary.

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