β-lapachone regulates mammalian inositol pyrophosphate levels in an NQO1- and oxygen-dependent mannerVerena B. Eisenbeis, Danye Qiu, Oliver Gorka, Lisa Strotmann, Guizhen Liu, Isabel Prucker, Xue Bessie Su, Miranda S. C. Wilson, Kevin Ritter, Christoph Loenarz, Olaf Groß, Adolfo Saiardi, Henning J. Jessen
Inositol pyrophosphates (PP-InsPs) are energetic signaling molecules with important functions in mammals. As their biosynthesis depends on ATP concentration, PP-InsPs are tightly connected to cellular energy homeostasis. Consequently, an increasing number of studies involve PP-InsPs in metabolic disorders, such as type 2 diabetes, aspects of tumorigenesis, and hyperphosphatemia. Research conducted in yeast suggests that the PP-InsP pathway is activated in response to reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the precise modulation of PP-InsPs during cellular ROS signaling is unknown. Here, we report how mammalian PP-InsP levels are changing during exposure to exogenous (H 2 O 2 ) and endogenous ROS. Using capillary electrophoresis electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-MS), we found that PP-InsP levels decrease upon exposure to oxidative stressors in HCT116 cells. Application of quinone drugs, particularly β-lapachone (β-lap), under normoxic and hypoxic conditions enabled us to produce ROS in cellulo and to show that β-lap treatment caused PP-InsP changes that are oxygen-dependent. Experiments in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells deficient of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1) demonstrated that β-lap requires NQO1 bioactivation to regulate the cellular metabolism of PP-InsPs. Critically, significant reductions in cellular ATP concentrations were not directly mirrored in reduced PP-InsP levels as shown in NQO1-deficient MDA-MB-231 cells treated with β-lap. The data presented here unveil unique aspects of β-lap pharmacology and its impact on PP-InsP levels. The identification of different quinone drugs as modulators of PP-InsP synthesis will allow the overall impact on cellular function of such drugs to be better appreciated.