Mengliu Luo, Qianhua Yuan, Yutong Xie, Meiqing Mai, Wanhan Song, Ya Wang, Haimei Shi, Enqin Xia, Honghui Guo

Yo-yo Dieting Delays Male Drosophila melanogaster Aging Through Enhanced Mitochondrial Function, Relative to Sustained High-Calorie Diet Feeding

  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Aging

Abstract Weight regain subsequent to weight reduction resulting from dietary interventions represents a prevalent phenomenon recognized as "Yo-yo dieting." However, the impact of prolonged Yo-yo dieting on health, especially in relation to the aging process, remains poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the influence of Yo-yo dieting on the aging process in male Drosophila melanogaster that have been exposed to a high-calorie (HC) diet. Fruit flies were fed with either a consistent HC diet or an alternating regimen of HC and low-calorie diets every three days (referred to as "Yo-yo dieting") for a total of 24 days. Biochemical assays were utilized to quantify levels of oxidative stress and activities of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes. The frozen section staining method was employed to assess the presence of lipid droplets, reactive oxygen species, cellular viability, and mitochondrial abundance in tissues. Additionally, we examined the expression of key regulators involved in mitochondrial dynamics and biogenic signaling pathways. Yo-yo dieting resulted in an extension of the fruit flies' lifespan, concomitant with reduced body weight, decreased body protein content, and lower triglyceride levels compared to continuous a HC diet feeding. Furthermore, Yo-yo dieting ameliorated impairments in motility and intestinal barrier function. Importantly, it improved mitochondrial function and upregulated the expression of essential mitochondrial fusion proteins, namely mitofusin 1 and mitofusin 2, optic atrophy 1 (Opa1), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α). Therefore, the practice of Yo-yo dieting extends the lifespan of fruit flies by modulating mitochondrial dynamics and the associated biogenic signaling pathways.

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