DOI: 10.3390/s23249799 ISSN: 1424-8220

Validity of AI-Based Gait Analysis for Simultaneous Measurement of Bilateral Lower Limb Kinematics Using a Single Video Camera

Takumi Ino, Mina Samukawa, Tomoya Ishida, Naofumi Wada, Yuta Koshino, Satoshi Kasahara, Harukazu Tohyama
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Biochemistry
  • Instrumentation
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Analytical Chemistry

Accuracy validation of gait analysis using pose estimation with artificial intelligence (AI) remains inadequate, particularly in objective assessments of absolute error and similarity of waveform patterns. This study aimed to clarify objective measures for absolute error and waveform pattern similarity in gait analysis using pose estimation AI (OpenPose). Additionally, we investigated the feasibility of simultaneous measuring both lower limbs using a single camera from one side. We compared motion analysis data from pose estimation AI using video footage that was synchronized with a three-dimensional motion analysis device. The comparisons involved mean absolute error (MAE) and the coefficient of multiple correlation (CMC) to compare the waveform pattern similarity. The MAE ranged from 2.3 to 3.1° on the camera side and from 3.1 to 4.1° on the opposite side, with slightly higher accuracy on the camera side. Moreover, the CMC ranged from 0.936 to 0.994 on the camera side and from 0.890 to 0.988 on the opposite side, indicating a “very good to excellent” waveform similarity. Gait analysis using a single camera revealed that the precision on both sides was sufficiently robust for clinical evaluation, while measurement accuracy was slightly superior on the camera side.

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