DOI: 10.3390/nu15153377 ISSN: 2072-6643

Unraveling the Impact of Gut and Oral Microbiome on Gut Health in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

Hala Elzayat, Ghaidaa Mesto, Farah Al-Marzooq
  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex disorder characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). IBD mainly includes two distinct diseases, namely Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. To date, the precise etiology of these conditions is not fully elucidated. Recent research has shed light on the significant role of the oral and gut microbiome in the development and progression of IBD and its collective influence on gut health. This review aims to investigate the connection between the oral and gut microbiome in the context of IBD, exploring the intricate interplay between these microbial communities and their impact on overall gut health. Recent advances in microbiome research have revealed a compelling link between the oral and gut microbiome, highlighting their pivotal role in maintaining overall health. The oral cavity and GIT are two interconnected ecosystems that harbor complex microbial communities implicated in IBD pathogenesis in several ways. Reduction in diversity and abundance of beneficial bacterial species with the colonization of opportunistic pathogens can induce gut inflammation. Some of these pathogens can arise from oral origin, especially in patients with oral diseases such as periodontitis. It is essential to discern the mechanisms of microbial transmission, the impact of oral health on the gut microbiome, and the potential role of dysbiosis in disease development. By elucidating this relationship, we can enhance our understanding of IBD pathogenesis and identify potential therapeutic avenues for managing the disease. Furthermore, innovative strategies for modulating the oral and gut microbiome can promote health and prevent disease occurrence and progression.

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