DOI: 10.3390/ijms241310470 ISSN: 1422-0067

The Review of Current Knowledge on Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL)

Katarzyna Romejko, Magdalena Markowska, Stanisław Niemczyk
  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Spectroscopy
  • Molecular Biology
  • General Medicine
  • Catalysis

Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a 25-kDa protein that is secreted mostly by immune cells such as neutrophils, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Its production is stimulated in response to inflammation. The concentrations of NGAL can be measured in plasma, urine, and biological fluids such as peritoneal effluent. NGAL is known mainly as a biomarker of acute kidney injury and is released after tubular damage and during renal regeneration processes. NGAL is also elevated in chronic kidney disease and dialysis patients. It may play a role as a predictor of the progression of renal function decreases with complications and mortality due to kidney failure. NGAL is also useful in the diagnostic processes of cardiovascular diseases. It is highly expressed in injured heart tissue and atherosclerostic plaque; its serum concentrations correlate with the severity of heart failure and coronary artery disease. NGAL increases inflammatory states and its levels rise in arterial hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and metabolic complications such as insulin resistance, and is also involved in carcinogenesis. In this review, we present the current knowledge on NGAL and its involvement in different pathologies, especially its role in renal and cardiovascular diseases.

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