DOI: 10.1111/1556-4029.15369 ISSN:

The most consistent finding in forensic science is inconsistency

Itiel E. Dror
  • Genetics
  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine


The most consistent finding in many forensic science domains is inconsistency (i.e., lack of reliability, reproducibility, repeatability, and replicability). The lack of consistency is a major problem, both from a scientific and a criminal justice point of view. Examining forensic conclusion data, from across many forensic domains, highlights the underlying cognitive issues and offers a better understanding of the issues and challenges. Such insights enable the development of ways to minimize these inconsistencies and move forward. The aim is to highlight the problem, so that it can be minimized and the reliability of forensic science evidence can be improved.

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