DOI: 10.46989/001c.94386 ISSN: 2590-0048

The Implementation of Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T-cell Therapy in Pediatric Patients: Where Did We Come From, Where Are We Now, and Where are We Going?

Tristan Knight E, Olalekan Oluwole, Carrie Kitko
  • Hematology
  • Health Professions (miscellaneous)

CD19-directed Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has revolutionized the treatment of patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). Somewhat uniquely among oncologic clinical trials, early clinical development occurred simultaneously in both children and adults. In subsequent years however, the larger number of adult patients with relapsed/refractory (r/r) malignancies has led to accelerated development of multiple CAR T-cell products that target a variety of malignancies, resulting in six currently FDA-approved for adult patients. By comparison, only a single CAR-T cell therapy is approved by the FDA for pediatric patients: tisagenlecleucel, which is approved for patients  25 years with refractory B-cell precursor ALL, or B-cell ALL in second or later relapse. Tisagenlecleucel is also under evaluation in pediatric patients with relapsed/refractory B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, but is not yet been approved for this indication. All the other FDA-approved CD19-directed CAR-T cell therapies available for adult patients (axicabtagene ciloleucel, brexucabtagene autoleucel, and lisocabtagene maraleucel) are currently under investigations among children, with preliminary results available in some cases. As the volume and complexity of data continue to grow, so too does the necessity of rapid assimilation and implementation of those data. This is particularly true when considering “atypical” situations, e.g. those arising when patients do not precisely conform to the profile of those included in pivotal clinical trials, or when alternative treatment options (e.g. hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) or bispecific T-cell engagers (BITEs)) are also available. We have therefore developed a relevant summary of the currently available literature pertaining to the use of CD19-directed CAR-T cell therapies in pediatric patients, and sought to provide guidance for clinicians seeking additional data about specific clinical situations.

More from our Archive