DOI: 10.3390/molecules29040813 ISSN: 1420-3049

The Identification of Structural Changes in the Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide–Toluene System via Ultrasonic Relaxation Spectroscopy and Theoretical Calculations

Constantine Kouderis, Afrodite Tryfon, Themistoklis A. Kabanos, Angelos G. Kalampounias
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Drug Discovery
  • Pharmaceutical Science

Ultrasonic absorption measurements were carried out over a wide concentration and temperature range by means of a pulse technique to examine the structural mechanisms and the dynamical properties in lithium hexamethyldisilazide (LiHMDS)–toluene solutions. Acoustic spectra revealed two distinct Debye-type relaxational absorptions attributed to the formation of trimers from dimeric and monomer units and to the formation of aggregates between a LiHMDS dimer and one toluene molecule in low and high frequencies, respectively. The formation of aggregates was clarified by means of molecular docking and DFT methodologies. The aggregation number, the rate constants and the thermodynamic properties of these structural changes were determined by analyzing in detail the concentration-dependent relaxation parameters. The low-frequency relaxation mechanism dominates the acoustic spectra in the high LiHMDS mole fractions, while the high-frequency relaxation influences the spectra in the low LiHMDS mole fractions. In the intermediate mole fraction region (0.25 to 0.46), both relaxations prevail in the spectra. The adiabatic compressibility, the excess adiabatic compressibility and the theoretically estimated mean free length revealed a crossover in the 0.25 to 0.46 LiHMDS mole fractions that signified the transition from one structural mechanism related with the hetero-association of LiHMDS dimers with toluene molecules to the other structural mechanism assigned to the formation of LiHMDS trimers. The combined use of acoustic spectroscopy with theoretical calculations permitted us to disentangle the underlying structural mechanisms and evaluate the volume changes associated with each reaction. The results were compared with the corresponding theoretically predicted volume changes and discussed in the context of the concentration effect on intermolecular bonding.

More from our Archive