DOI: 10.3390/nu15143278 ISSN: 2072-6643

The Footprint of Microbiome in Pediatric Asthma—A Complex Puzzle for a Balanced Development

Ancuta Lupu, Elena Jechel, Cristina Maria Mihai, Elena Cristina Mitrofan, Silvia Fotea, Iuliana Magdalena Starcea, Ileana Ioniuc, Adriana Mocanu, Dragos Catalin Ghica, Alina Popp, Dragos Munteanu, Maria Oana Sasaran, Delia Lidia Salaru, Vasile Valeriu Lupu
  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Considered to be of greater complexity than the human genome itself, the microbiome, the structure of the body made up of trillions of bacteria, viruses, and fungi, has proven to play a crucial role in the context of the development of pathological processes in the body, starting from various infections, autoimmune diseases, atopies, and culminating in its involvement in the development of some forms of cancer, a diagnosis that is considered the most disabling for the patient from a psychological point of view. Therefore, being a cornerstone in the understanding and optimal treatment of a multitude of ailments, the body’s microbiome has become an intensively studied subject in the scientific literature of the last decade. This review aims to bring the microbiome–asthma correlation up to date by classifying asthmatic patterns, emphasizing the development patterns of the microbiome starting from the perinatal period and the impact of pulmonary dysbiosis on asthmatic symptoms in children. Likewise, the effects of intestinal dysbiosis reflected at the level of homeostasis of the internal environment through the intestine–lung/vital organs axis, the circumstances in which it occurs, but also the main methods of studying bacterial variability used for diagnostic purposes and in research should not be omitted. In conclusion, we draw current and future therapeutic lines worthy of consideration both in obtaining and maintaining remission, as well as in delaying the development of primary acute episodes and preventing future relapses.

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