DOI: 10.1093/europace/euad176 ISSN: 1099-5129

The digital journey: 25 years of digital development in electrophysiology from an Europace perspective

Emma Svennberg, Enrico G Caiani, Nico Bruining, Lien Desteghe, Janet K Han, Sanjiv M Narayan, Frank E Rademakers, Prashanthan Sanders, David Duncker
  • Physiology (medical)
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine



Over the past 25 years there has been a substantial development in the field of digital electrophysiology (EP) and in parallel a substantial increase in publications on digital cardiology.

In this celebratory paper, we provide an overview of the digital field by highlighting publications from the field focusing on the EP Europace journal.


In this journey across the past quarter of a century we follow the development of digital tools commonly used in the clinic spanning from the initiation of digital clinics through the early days of telemonitoring, to wearables, mobile applications, and the use of fully virtual clinics. We then provide a chronicle of the field of artificial intelligence, a regulatory perspective, and at the end of our journey provide a future outlook for digital EP.


Over the past 25 years Europace has published a substantial number of papers on digital EP, with a marked expansion in digital publications in recent years.

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