DOI: 10.1093/ageing/afae035 ISSN: 0002-0729

Strategies to increase the coverage of influenza and pneumonia vaccination in older adults: a systematic review and network meta-analysis

Peipei Du, Shuyan Jin, Shuya Lu, Li Wang, Xiaofeng Ma, Jie Wang, Runting Huang, Qingyue Luo, Shu Yang, Xixi Feng
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Aging
  • General Medicine



It is urgent to implement interventions to increase vaccination rates of influenza/pneumonia vaccines in older adults, yet the effectiveness of different intervention strategies has not been thoroughly evaluated.


We aimed to assess the effectiveness of intervention strategies for increasing the coverage of influenza/pneumonia vaccination in older adults.


PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Embase, China Biology Medicine disc, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang were searched from 1 January 2000 to 1 October 2022. RCTs that assessed any intervention strategies for increasing influenza/pneumonia vaccination coverage or willingness in older adults were included. A series of random-effects network meta-analysis was conducted by using frequentist frameworks.


Twenty-two RCTs involving 385,182 older participants were eligible for further analysis. Eight types of intervention strategies were evaluated. Compared with routine notification, health education (odds ratio [OR], 1.85 [95%CI, 1.19 to 2.88]), centralised reminder (OR, 1.63 [95%CI, 1.07 to 2.47]), health education + onsite vaccination (OR, 2.89 [95%CI, 1.30 to 6.39]), and health education + centralised reminder + onsite vaccination (OR, 20.76 [95%CI, 7.33 to 58.74]) could effectively improve the vaccination rate. The evidence grade was low or very low due to the substantial heterogeneity among studies.


Our findings suggest that health education + centralised reminder + onsite vaccination may potentially be an effective strategy regardless of cost, but the evidence level was low. More rigorous trials are needed to identify the association between strategies and vaccination rates among older adults and to integrate such evidence into clinical care to improve vaccination rates.

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