DOI: 10.1177/18632521231192477 ISSN:

Spinal osteoid osteoma in the pediatric population: A management algorithm and systematic review

Alexander R Farid, David S Liu, Mary M Morcos, Grant D Hogue
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology and Child Health


The purpose of this study is to develop an accessible step-wise management algorithm for the management of pediatric spinal osteoid osteomas (OOs) based on a systematic review of the published literature regarding the diagnostic evaluation, treatment, and outcomes following surgical resection.


A systematic review of the literature was conducted on PubMed to locate English language studies reporting on the management of pediatric spinal OOs. Data extraction of clinical presentation, management strategies and imaging, and treatment outcomes were performed.


Ten studies reporting on 85 patients under the age of 18 years presenting with OOs were identified. Back pain was the most common presenting symptom, and scoliosis was described in 8 out of 10 studies, and radicular pain in 7 out of 10 studies. Diagnostic, intraoperative, and postoperative assessment included radiographs, computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), bone scans, and frozen section. Treatment options varied, including conservative management, open surgical resection with or without intraoperative imaging, and percutaneous image-guided treatment. All included studies described partial or complete resolution of pain in the immediate postoperative period.


The proposed algorithm provides a suggested framework for management of pediatric spinal OOs based on the available evidence (levels of evidence: 3, 4). This review of the literature indicated that a step-wise approach should be utilized in the management of pediatric spinal OOs.

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