Single closed‐loop acoustic stimulation targeting memory consolidation suppressed hippocampal ripple and thalamo‐cortical spindle activity in miceSonat Aksamaz, Matthias Mölle, Esther Olubukola Akinola, Erik Gromodka, Maxim Bazhenov, Lisa Marshall
- General Neuroscience
Brain rhythms of sleep reflect neuronal activity underlying sleep‐associated memory consolidation. The modulation of brain rhythms, such as the sleep slow oscillation (SO), is used both to investigate neurophysiological mechanisms as well as to measure the impact of sleep on presumed functional correlates. Previously, closed‐loop acoustic stimulation in humans targeted to the SO Up‐state successfully enhanced the slow oscillation rhythm and phase‐dependent spindle activity, although effects on memory retention have varied. Here, we aim to disclose relations between stimulation‐induced hippocampo‐thalamo‐cortical activity and retention performance on a hippocampus‐dependent object‐place recognition task in mice by applying acoustic stimulation at four estimated SO phases compared to sham condition. Across the 3‐h retention interval at the beginning of the light phase closed‐loop stimulation failed to improve retention significantly over sham. However, retention during SO Up‐state stimulation was significantly higher than for another SO phase. At all SO phases, acoustic stimulation was accompanied by a sharp increase in ripple activity followed by about a second‐long suppression of hippocampal sharp wave ripple and longer maintained suppression of thalamo‐cortical spindle activity. Importantly, dynamics of SO‐coupled hippocampal ripple activity distinguished SOUp‐state stimulation. Non‐rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep was not impacted by stimulation, yet preREM sleep duration was effected. Results reveal the complex effect of stimulation on the brain dynamics and support the use of closed‐loop acoustic stimulation in mice to investigate the inter‐regional mechanisms underlying memory consolidation.