Ashish Jain, Arti Ralta, Gitika Batra, Rupa Joshi, Nitika Garg, Alka Bhatia, Bikash Medhi, Amitava Chakrabarti, Ajay Prakash

SEW2871 reduces seizures via the sphingosine 1‐phosphate receptor‐1 pathway in the pentylenetetrazol and phenobarbitone kindling model of drug‐refractory epilepsy

  • Physiology (medical)
  • Pharmacology
  • Physiology

AbstractEpilepsy is a prevalent neurological disorder characterized by neuronal hypersynchronous discharge in the brain, leading to central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. Despite the availability of anti‐epileptic drugs (AEDs), resistance to AEDs is the greatest challenge in treating epilepsy. The role of sphingosine‐1‐phosphate‐receptor 1 (S1PR1) in drug‐resistant epilepsy is unexplored. This study investigated the effects of SEW2871, a potent S1PR1 agonist, on a phenobarbitone (PHB)‐resistant pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)‐kindled Wistar rat model. We measured the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression of multi‐drug resistance 1 (MDR1) and multi‐drug resistance protein 5 (MRP5) as indicators for drug resistance. Rats received PHB + PTZ for 62 days to develop a drug‐resistant epilepsy model. From day 48, SEW2871 (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [i.p.]) was administered for 14 days. Seizure scoring, behaviour, oxidative markers like reduced glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase, inflammatory markers like interleukin 1 beta tumour necrosis factor alpha, interferon gamma and mRNA expression (MDR1 and MRP5) were assessed, and histopathological assessments were conducted. SEW2871 demonstrated dose‐dependent improvements in seizure scoring and neurobehavioral parameters with a reduction in oxidative and inflammation‐induced neuronal damage. The S1PR1 agonist also downregulated MDR1 and MRP5 gene expression and significantly decreased the number of dark‐stained pyknotic nuclei and increased cell density with neuronal rearrangement in the rat brain hippocampus. These findings suggest that SEW2871 might ameliorate epileptic symptoms by modulating drug resistance through downregulation of MDR1 and MRP5 gene expression.

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